We greatly reduce the risk of operating internationally
Every well-run multinational organisation requires a set of essential support services to ensure it stays in tune with its complex of differing business environments and compliant with both professional standards and national laws. That is the role of accountants, management consultants, training organisations, law firms and FedEE®.
FedEE® offers a unique, high quality service not available elsewhere. We overlap to some extent with other professional services, but no truly effective multinational HR department could function without us. That is why we were established 30 years ago – by HR professionals, for HR professionals.
Many companies operate with in-house legal counsel to provide first-line support on compliance issues and specific legal problems. FedEE®’s principal role is to act as an extension of this service – but specialising exclusively on employment law and related issues. We also own trademark rights to the exclusive title Qualified Professional HR Counsel (QP-HR Counsel®) that only graduates of our Advanced Diploma may use.
Our experience in dealing with legal matters for a wide range of multinational organisations also means that our member companies can gain the benefit of our seasoned expertise. We also back up our guidance with a comprehensive knowledgebase covering 60+ jurisdictions that can be consulted on a 24/7 basis.
FedEE® therefore fills the gap between in-house resources and conventional external resources. We provide timely, first line support whenever you need to resolve an HR issue or wish for a reliable second opinion. Our knowledgebase is packed with employment law data, statistics, guidance notes, public holiday dates from around the world, pay projections, minimum wage rates and cost of living information – all backed up by a Worldwide legal helpline. We also have a proprietary job pricing system and monitor worldwide developments for our comprehensive fortnightly newswire. Senior HR professionals have the opportunity to network through our Fellows’ Meetings, may meet-up online or face-to-face through our ButN® forum and participate in our legal briefings and training courses.
A brief history of the Federation up to the present day.
Differing employment rights and obligations around the world.
Remuneration and IR
Key reward and people management issues.
Ensuring policies and practices are lawful and rooted in good HR standards.
PLEASE NOTE: Due to the significant risk of abduction and deception by taxi or even private hire services, the best practice for companies sending executives or professionals to countries where they do not have representatives is to arrange for a registered guide to meet visitors at airports or rail stations. This will add to the visit cost, but in some locations the daily cost of a guide can be relatively low. To secure a guide, we suggest that only those registered with a national association affiliated to the WFTGA be used. Official guide costs can range from US$18 in Indonesia, US$32 in India and US$52 in Columbia to US$137 in Prague, US$363 in Munich and US$369 in Tokyo. Airport pick-ups are a normal part of a guide’s service and many will also offer interpretation and secretarial assistance.
IRELAND: Ryanair flights could be affected as pilots in Ireland have announced two more strikes to take place on the 20th of July and the 24th of July, following disagreement over promotions and seniority.
MEXICO: Please note that from the 16th of July 2018, British consular services in Mexico City will be operating from the British Embassy at Río Lerma 71, Col. Cuauhtémoc, 06500.
CAMEROON: Clashes between the army and Anglophone separatists claimed several lives in the town of Kumba in Cameroon’s troubled Southwest Region province on the 9th of June, 2018.
SINGAPORE: Drunk and disorderly conduct is a serious crime in the country. Offenders will be fined or face imprisonment, and/or corporal punishment (caning).
NIGERIA: Elections are scheduled in Ekiti on the 14th of July. Visitors are advised to avoid any political rallies or demonstrations.
CAMBODIA: A general election will be held on Sunday, the 29th of July 2018. You should avoid large gatherings, demonstrations and political meetings.
MOLDOVA: Stay vigilant in Transnistria due to the unresolved conflict between this breakaway region and the central government.
HAITI: Visitors are advised not to travel to the country due to civil unrest and crime.
UK: Workers at Aberdeen International Airport are planning to launch industrial action on 20 July, 2 and 16 August over pay dispute.
SWITZERLAND: Air traffic controllers in Geneva and other regional Swiss airports have threatened to launch industrial action from the 23rd of July over a pay dispute.
SPAIN: Ibiza airport staff have threatened to go on strike from the 20 of July over a shift work dispute and unpaid bonuses.
UK: Baggage handlers at Luton Airport have voted to go on strike from 20-22 July over a pay dispute.
MAURITANIA: Avoid nonessential travel to the country due to the threat of terrorism.
NORWAY: Strikes planned for June 29th at various airports around the country have been postponed until September 4th to allow for negotiations with airport management.
ETHIOPIA: Stay vigilant as there have been reports of civil unrest and gunfire in the town of Assosa, in Benishangul Gumuz regional state since the end of June.
PAKISTAN: General elections are scheduled to be held on 25 July 2018. You are advised to avoid all street rallies and political events as they can end in dangerous crowd movements and violence.
COLOMBIA: Exercise increased caution in Colombia – due to crime and terrorism.
SOUTH SUDAN: Violent crime, such as carjackings, shootings, ambushes, assaults, robberies, and kidnappings are common throughout the country, including the capital city Juba.
TURKEY: Visitors are advised not to travel to areas along the Turkey-Syria border and the southeastern provinces of Hatay, Kilis, Gaziantep, Sanliurfa, Sirnak, Diyarbakir, Van, Siirt, Mus, Mardin, Batman, Bingol, Tunceli, Hakkari, and Bitlis due to terrorism.
UK: Expect train disruptions from the August 25th on the Manchester-Bolton-Preston line due to a railway line upgrade.
GUYANA: Visitors are advised to avoid travel to and from Georgetown Cheddi Jagan international airport late at night and before dawn due to possible attacks by gangs.
MONGOLIA: Only a few specified land border crossings are open to foreigners. If you wish to travel to zones of up to 100km inside the border, you must get permission from the State Frontier Guard Authority.
BELIZE: Avoid mosquito bites, particularly between dawn and dusk – as there is a risk of the dengue disease in this country.
NICARAGUA: Visitors are advised against all but essential travel to the country due to a prolonged period of political unrest and street violence in many areas since mid-April 2018.
MONTSERRAT: Be mindful that the hurricane season in the Caribbean runs from June to November.
GERMANY: Pilots at Ryanair are voting on possible industrial action from August 2018 onwards.
HAITI: Avoid nonessential travel to the neighborhoods of Martissant, Carrefour, Bel Air and Cite Soleil, in the Port-au-Prince area due to the unstable and dangerous security situation.
INDIA: Please avoid travelling in the immediate vicinity of the border with Pakistan.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: A nine-month state of emergency has been declared in the country following significantly increased levels of tribal fighting. Visitors are advised against all but essential travel to Hela and Southern Highlands provinces.
UAE: Please be aware that all air and sea points of entry between UAE and Qatar were closed on the 6th of June 2017.
NICARAGUA: American Airlines has suspended flights between the cities of Managua and Miami for security reasons.
MOZAMBIQUE: Visitors are advised against all but essential travel to the districts of Palma, Mocimboa de Praia and Macomia in Cabo Delgado province because of an increase in attacks by groups with links to Islamic extremism.
ESWATINI: Swaziland has officially changed its name to “the Kingdom of eSwatini”.
TANZANIA: You should remain vigilant at all times. Although most visits to Tanzania are trouble-free, violent and armed crime is increasing. Road conditions are generally poor and driving standards are erratic.
INDONESIA: Due to the regular occurrence of violent incidents, visitors are advised to avoid non-essential travel to the province of Papua.
LEBANON: Exercise a high degree of caution in the country, due to the unpredictable security situation, the threat of terrorist attack and ongoing political and sectarian tensions.
CANADA/UK: British Airways flights this coming Winter between Calgary and London’s Heathrow Airport will be temporarily suspended.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Exercise great caution if you are travelling to Hela, Enga, Southern Highlands and Western Highlands provinces as there has been a significant increase in levels of tribal fighting in these regions following a 7.5 magnitude earthquake in February 2018.
UK: Northern Rail has cancelled 165 daily train services until the end of July. This follows other major disruptions since new timetables were introduced in May.
USA: PenAir has suspended flights to and from Bar Harbor and Presque Isle, Maine and Plattsburgh, New York due to pilot shortage.
BURMAN/MYANMAR: Visitors are advised against all but essential travel to Paletwa township, in southern Chin State and Kachin State (except the towns of Myitkyina, Bhamo and Putao) because of widespread armed conflict.
MOZAMBIQUE: Exercise great caution when traveling to this country. It is reported that several people were killed in the area of Olumbi in the district of Palma at the end of May 2018.
CHAD: Visitors are advised to use a police or military escort when driving outside the capital city N’Djamena, and carry working communications equipment due to increased number of car-jackings on roads outside N’Djamena, including during daylight hours.
GUINEA – BISSAU: The next parliamentary elections are scheduled in November 2018. Please avoid any demonstrations or sensitive areas like military installations.
PAKISTAN: Please avoid all non-essential trips to the districts of Dir and Chitra, as there are reports that extremists may carry out attacks targeting foreign nationals.
DR CONGO: On the 23rd of May, 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) have reported 58 Ebola cases in the country, including 27 deaths since April, resulting in a case-fatality rate of 47%.
TANZANIA: Please note that passengers travelling from DRC to Tanzania may be subject to special health screening.
GUYANA: Exercise great caution as violent crime, such as armed robbery and murder, is common throughout the country.
MEXICO: Please exercise great caution anywhere in the country as violent crime, such as homicide, kidnapping, carjacking, and robbery, are widespread.
BENIN: Please exercise increased caution in urban areas and beaches due to frequent crime.
VENEZUELA: Visitors are advised to avoid nonessential travel to the country because of social disorder, disease outbreaks and poor health care facilities.
UKRAINE: Stay vigilant because of the prevalence of crimes of opportunity.
ISRAEL: Exercise great caution in the country as the security situation may change rapidly. Avoid all travel to the Gaza Strip, avoid non-essential travel to the West Bank, excluding Ramallah, Jericho and Bethlehem.
BOLIVIA: Exercise a high degree of caution as social tensions and illegal roadblocks continue throughout the country.
TIMOR-LESTE: The security situation is still fragile and the level of crime remains high throughout the country.
INDONESIA: Please avoid non-essential travel to the province of Papua due to the regular occurrence of violence.
PANAMA: Avoid non-essential travel to the “Mosquito Coast” (Caribbean side) and the Darién Region (Colombian border) due to crime.
SOUTH AFRICA: All flights between the Wonderboom Airport in Pretoria and Cape Town have been suspended from the 8th of May, 2018 due to infrastructural development.
PHILIPPINES: Philippine Airlines will temporarily suspend flights from Manila to Caticlan until October the 26th.
MADAGASCAR: Visitors are advised to avoid all travel to Batterie Beach, just north of Toliara, where violent assaults have occurred.
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Avoid non-essential travel to this country due to crime and civil unrest.
ARMENIA: Due to the tense political situation and widescale street protests visitors are advised to avoid trips to anywhere in the country.
NICARAGUA: Visitors are advised to exercise great caution in the country as large-scale civil unrest continues.
AUSTRIA: It is illegal to wear any clothing or object that conceals the face and makes facial features unrecognisable in a public place. It is not clear if this includes full face motorcycle helmets as legislators appear to have overlooked this use of a facial covering because it is not connected with religious adherence.
BANGLADESH: Visitors are advised against nonessential travel to the country due to the threat of terrorism, political demonstrations, nationwide hartals (general strikes + mass protests) and violent clashes.
BAHRAIN: UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) are not valid for entry into Bahrain. However, ETDs are accepted for airside transit and exit from Bahrain.
BOLIVIA: Exercise a high degree of caution due to the continuing political and social tensions and frequent, illegal roadblocks throughout the country.
BRAZIL: São Paulo is reporting a dramatic increase in hepatitis A cases this year. Between January the 1st and September the 16th2017, the city recorded 517 cases of the disease – already an increase of more than 700% over the whole of 2016, when there were 64 cases.
BURKINA FASO: Visitors should avoid non-essential travel to this country due to the high threat of terrorism. The country has seen a significant increase in dengue fever cases in October 2017. Dengue fever is an infectious disease carried by mosquitoes and caused by any of four related dengue viruses.
BURMA (MYANMAR): Protests related to an Arakan national event took place in Central Rakhine on the 16th of January 2018 and resulted in seven deaths. Stay vigilant as often violent communal tension between the Buddhist Rakhine population and Muslim Rohingya continues.
CAMEROON: There is an ongoing crisis in Cameroon. Visitors are advised against all but essential travel to Mamfe in the South West region. Avoid all travel to the Far North region and Mayo-Louti Department in the North region due to the increased threat of frequent attacks by the Boko Haram extremist group, banditry and kidnappings.
CHILE: Health officials in the Bio Bio Region of Chile are reporting a large outbreak of Salmonella that has infected many people. Salmonella bacteria can cause diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, and fever.
EGYPT: Avoid all travel to the Sinai Peninsula (except Sharm el-Sheikh), because of terrorist activity and ongoing military operations by the Egyptian Armed Forces.
ETHIOPIA: Visitors will not be able to buy and use Ethio Tel SIM cards in mobile devices that have not been purchased in Ethiopia or registered with the authorities from the 26th of September 2017.
GHANA: Violence towards LGBT people by mobs and even their own family members is on the increase. It is an offence in Ghana to be part of the LGBT community and prosecution could result in a custodial sentence of between 3 and 25 years.
HAITI: Visitors are advised to carefully consider the risks of traveling to Haiti due to its current security environment and lack of adequate medical facilities and emergency response capabilities.
INDIA: A warning has been issued by the Kerala health department about mosquito-borne infections in the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. There is also a risk of water-borne diseases like typhoid, jaundice, cholera and diarrhea. Remember to take a medical prescription with you if you are going to take any medicines into the country. Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances are prohibited. There is an outbreak of swine flu (H1N1) in Rajasthan. At least 88 people have died and 976 others have tested positive for H1N1 influenza so far this year.
Hiring & Firing
In most countries the hiring process is less problematic than the termination of an employee. However, recruitment is also fraught with dangers – particularly with regard to potential discrimination. For example, increasingly across the USA employers may not ask a candidate their previous salary on gender equality grounds. In Canada unions frequently have a tight grip on who is hired – especially in the public sector – and have a Supreme Court ruling favouring the mandatory payment of union dues wherever there is a collective agreement. The types of contracts that may be used when hiring employees also differ enormously around the world
At every level and location pitfalls remain – for instance:
In France all documentation – including the employment contract – must be written in French.
In Slovakia all job adverts must include a basic pay rate and this must be honoured when making a job offer.
In China a new employer could find themselves responsible for unmet obligations from a previous employer.
Under the UK’s Equality act 2010 job protection rights for pregnant workers commence on the first day of a woman’s pregnancy – long before even she knows she’s pregnant.
In the USA it is important to determine if a new employee is “exempt” or “non-exempt” under the Fair Labor Standards Act.
In Singapore it is an offence that may be punishable by flogging (caning) if a manager hires an immigrant worker without the correct papers or even just organises their transportation.
SOUTH AFRICA: A number of legal changes have recently taken effect. Of importance to foreign employees working in the country is the requirement for them to contribute to the Unemployment Insurance Contributions Fund. They may also now benefit from this fund when they lose their job. Although the national assembly voted for the widescale introduction of parental leave of 10 days, adoption leave of 10 weeks, and commissioning leave (for surrogate mothers), at the end of last year implementation of the new benefits awaits other legal amendments to accommodate them. Finally, changes to provident funds from March 2019 will bring them in line with pension funds to give retired workers a guaranteed annuity as well as a lump sum payment.
SAUDI ARABIA: The Kingdom’s principal advisory body, the Shura Council, has agreed to introduce a new law banning sexual harassment and introduce a penalty for infringement amounting to a prison term of up to 5 years and a fine of 300,000 riyals ($80,000). The female driving ban ends on the 24th of June and mixed-gender cinemas are now being allowed. However, at the same time – and to the astonishment of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights – the most prominent activists for women’s rights are being arrested and accused of being traitors to the state. Therefore, perhaps these reforms are being made far more reluctantly than the self-styled “progressive” Crown Prince, Mohammed bin Salman, would like to admit.
KENYA: A proposed amendment to the Labour Relations Act before parliament requires that where a dispute involves essential services such as healthcare, telecommunication, ports, fuel distribution, and the energy sector, then adequate notice of strike action should be given and cover must be arranged so that there is no threat to the “preservation of life, health of the population and property”.
Brussels & Rome rules
Working Time & Leave
Less than half the world’s working population are in paid formal employment. For those with bone fide jobs working time is normally restricted with a maximum working week, rest breaks during the day and extended rest breaks both between work shifts and at least for one day per week. Annual leave varies considerably, as too do public holidays.
Cambodia has the largest number of public holidays in the World – totalling 28 days.
The USA is one of only 7 countries in the world not to offer paid maternity leave at a national level.
In Kenya night workers who work overtime, plus time during normal daily hours must not exceed 144 hours in total during any two-week consecutive period (ie: An average of 72 hours a week).
If an employee is certified by a doctor as unwell in Indonesia their employer cannot dismiss them whilst they are absent for the first 12 months. They must pay 100% of their salary for the first 4 months – reducing to 50% after 8 months. When dismissed, their generous severance pay entitlement and other compensations are doubled. However, if an employee is absent for five continuous days without due certification they may be dismissed – but still with standard severance and compensation.
CANADA: Although technically possible for some time, it is only now that responsibility for the health and safety of temporary agency workers has been firmly laid at the door of user companies. Amendments to the Workplace Safety and Insurance Act (WSIA) means that insurance coverage will have to extend to such workers. However, there are exceptions for schedule 2 self-insured workers and those on MAP, NEER, and CAD programmes.
MEXICO: According to the National Commission of Human Rights (CNDH), only around half of all those employed in Mexico are covered by work-related healthcare services. Latest figures from the Mexican Institute of Social Security – relating to 2016 – indicate there were 1,408 officially recorded deaths at work annually, but over 1,402,445 accidents and 335,719 occupational diseases. There is a strong framework for health and safety in the workplace provided though the state constitution, labour and social security laws, and ministerial guidelines – however few of these have any significant or widespread effect, especially in respect to the country’s 30 million informal workers.
USA: Maryland has introduced a new law to prevent employers from creating policies or agreements that curtail an employee’s right to pursue a harassment claim. Employers with 50+ employees will also be required to participate in two state-wide surveys on the 1st of July 2020 and 2022. These will collect data on the monetary compensation paid and other settlements in respect to this offence.
Q&A: Hong Kong
Q&A: Sri Lanka
The Fluid Workforce
Discrimination & #Metoo
In all societies discrimination exists against certain groups, or individuals suffer harassment because they possess particular personal characteristics. Laws seek to remove the harmful effects of prejudice and the threat of harassment, but seldom have any impact on the root causes of mistreatment.
Countries vary greatly in the protection offered to disabled workers, most – except Botswana and three other African nations – have signed or ratified the UN Convention and protocol on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The USA and Irish Republic have only signed, but not ratified the convention.
#Metoo has had a big impact on the USA and many other countries around the world – but not in Italy, China, Japan and across the middle-east.
In Argentina anyone has the right to switch genders without giving proof. This has already led to a case of a man claiming a retirement pension early by claiming he was a woman.
Same gender sexual relations are punishable by the death penalty in ten countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia and Qatar.
The Sindh Assembly in Pakistan passed the Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities Bill into law during May 2018.
The reversal of the burden of proof for discrimination cases in courts located across the EU defies the principle of natural justice and leaves companies highly exposed to unjustified claims.
CHINA: According to the latest statistics from the Social Security Management Service Bureau of Hunan Province, in 2017 the monthly basic old-age pension received by enterprise retirees in Hunan province was 2,270 yuan (US$355). Currently, China’s retirement age is 60 for men, 55 for female white-collar workers, and 50 for female blue- collar employees.
HONG KONG: : The Commissioner for Labour has issued a 206-page Code of Practice for employment agencies. Agencies are heavily regulated and must possess a detailed operating licence or official certificate of exemption. The new Code has statutory status and failure to comply with it could result in a maximum fine of $350,000, imprisonment for 3 years, and revocation or refusal of an operating licence. Employers in Hong Kong that utilise such services should ensure that they monitor agencies in line with the Code in order to avoid any vicarious liability arising from non-compliance.
NEW ZEALAND: The Justice Select Committee is currently considering the Arbitration Amendment Bill. In a draft of the Bill, Clause 5 contains a provision that would remove the need for arbitration hearings to be made in public. However, the Ministry of Justice has proposed that Clause 5 is taken out of the Bill. Currently, New Zealand is an unattractive location to companies seeking international arbitrations in the Asia-Pacific region, therefore many cases are directed to Singapore or Hong Kong where confidentiality is assured.
Mandatory Arbitration Clauses
Reward & Labour Relations
Pay levels and differentials have a huge impact on living standards and incentives. Many countries offer minimum wage safety nets, but these can sometimes be lower than the effective subsistence level. Attempts by countries such as the UK and Germany to make public gender pay differences have not had any significant impact on pay equalities.
In Belgium 54% of an average single person’s gross employment income is deducted to pay for tax and social security.
The highest level of income inequality in OECD countries can be found in South Africa and the lowest level of inequality in Iceland.
Labour productivity measured in terms of Unit labour Costs per person employed across the OECD varies from Turkey – easily the most productive to Finland and Spain – the least productive.
Hourly manufacturing wages in China now exceed those in all but one major Latin American country and eight eastern European countries.
Article 153 (5) of the European Union (EU) Treaty prevents the issuing of Directives that apply to “pay, the right of association, the right to strike or the right to impose lock-outs”. This has been ignored by the EU institutions that continue to introduce measures relating, in particular, to pay – such as the latest Posting of Workers amendments.
ECJ: The Irish High Court has referred 11 questions, about international transfers of personal data, to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) – including whether the existing “Privacy Shield” agreement is valid. Although the case was brought by one Austrian privacy campaigner, the ECJ case will probably be opposed by 69 legal teams. The court’s decision is by no means a foregone conclusion and its ruling could significantly undermine the recently implemented GDPR.
FRANCE: The new French Data Protection Law implementing the GDPR had not been adopted for even a day before it was referred to the Constitutional Court by a large body of Senators for review. In the absence of a modified French law, employers should refer directly to the GDPR for guidance. Be very wary, in any case, of the French Data Protection Supervisory Body – the CNIL – as even before the GDPR the organisation “did not take prisoners” and now armed with a more powerful regulation, they could make life even more difficult for employers.
EU: In spite of open borders, just 3.8% of EU citizens aged 20–64 worked last year in another EU state. This was, however, up from 2.5% 10 years ago. In terms of the percentage of the home population, the most mobile workers were from Romania (19.7%), Lithuania (15%) and Croatia (14%), and the least mobile from Germany (1%), the UK (1.1%), and Sweden and France (1.3%). The biggest factor associated with French and German citizens working elsewhere in the EU is education, with 62.5% of French mobile workers having had tertiary education.
Q&A: Czech Republic
Join FedEE® Today
Sense out of uncertainty: HR without borders
Many of the world’s largest multinational companies already belong to The Federation of International Employers (FedEE®). We have a Worldwide membership – with particular concentrations in North America, Western Europe, India, Japan and China. A high proportion of our members have been part of FedEE for many years and tell us we provide a both unique and excellent service with great value for money. In fact, in a membership survey, 96% of members informed us they would not hesitate in recommending us to other multinational enterprises.
If your company has over 150 employees in two or more countries and has been operating for three or more years then you really cannot afford to operate without being part of the Federation. The approval process takes less than a day and for immediate access to our services we have an online credit card payment facility. You may have up to 15 individual users of our services anywhere in your global operations and each user will receive their own specific access codes.
Why not take a short tour of our knowledge-base before joining FedEE® to see the nature and extent of the employment law and HR data that we offer? Please contact our Membership Secretary to arrange for a one-to-one webinar for you and your colleagues, arranged entirely at your own convenience.
Corresponding Law Firms
We have just signed our first agreements with corresponding law firms around the world. The Federation shall be working in cooperation with this growing network of expertise to bring corporate members a fast, global service.
Engaging and practical pieces produced by FedEE® staff covering issues of concern for multinational HR professionals. These papers are illustrative of guidance notes we provide in our knowledge-base. They principally provide a European perspective – although the material available to corporate member organisations is largely pan-global.
Training & Events
Book your place for FedEE®’s advanced professional course for HR practitioners in multi-jurisdictional employment law. Join other HR professionals for the World’s first, advanced professional transnational law training course in employment law.
FedEE® Secretary General Robin Chater’s comments on HR-related developments around the world. Robin has an unequalled understanding of developments in employment law, particularly in the European Union. He was formerly an advisor to the European Commission for ten years and has counselled numerous multinationals on a wide range of HR issues.
FedEE® Senior Management Team
Payments & Administration