Representation and bargaining

Collective bargaining, employee representation, employer organisations, trade unions, industrial action.

Germany :: Works councils

Works council (Betriebsrat) rights and functions are regulated by the Works Constitution Act 2001 …

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Germany :: Two-tier boards

In public limited joint stock companies (AG), limited partnerships (KGaA), limited companies (GmbH) and other companies with 500+ German employees, and co-operatives, overall management is vested in a supervisory board …

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Germany :: Industrial relations

Trade unions are recognised in the German constitution, which gives the basic freedom to form and join a trade union …

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Germany :: Industrial action

Although strikes are lawful, they are generally avoided through a well-established process of arbitration and a requirement for strike ballots …

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Germany :: Collective agreements

Although only one-quarter of German private sector employees are members of a trade union, collective agreements remain a significant determinant of wage rates and other conditions of service …

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